Should you wish to subscribe to a bi-weekly update of this page, please send an email to email@example.com
For articles from 2011 to 2012, please see Awareness Archive
For articles from 2013 please see Awareness Archive 2013
Pope targeted on anti-Semitic website
April 16, 2014
Prosecutors in northern Italy have charged seven people with racial discrimination and defamation against figures including Pope Francis. Using an anti-Semitic website called Holywar, the suspects in Bolzano depicted the pontiff in photoshopped images dressed as a bearded Orthodox Jew waving the Israeli flag with a swastika at the center of the Star of David. Other figures targeted on the site included three-time premier Silvio Berlusconi, sitting Premier Matteo Renzi, European Central Bank chief Mario Draghi and Oscar-winning performer Roberto Benigni. Prosecutors said the suspects spanned the length of Italy.
Palestinian university students’ trip to Auschwitz causes uproar
A university student who went on the trip but asked not to be named because of the charged atmosphere said the visit changed him. “You feel the humanity. You feel the sympathy of so many people killed in this place because of their race or religion.”
April 15, 2014
By William Booth
Professor Mohammed S. Dajani took 27 Palestinian college students to visit the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland a few weeks ago as part of a project designed to teach empathy and tolerance. Upon his return, his university disowned the trip, his fellow Palestinians branded him a traitor and friends advised a quick vacation abroad.
Dajani said he expected criticism. “I believe a trip like this, for an organized group of Palestinian youth going to visit Auschwitz, is not only rare, but a first,” he said. “I thought there would be some complaints, then it would be forgotten.”
But the trip was explosive news to some, perhaps more so because it took place as U.S.-brokered peace talks between Israel and the Palestinians were in danger of collapse, and emotion surrounding the decades-old conflict is high.
Controversy was also heightened by rumors — untrue — that the trip was paid for by Jewish organizations. It was paid for by the German government.
Dajani said that many Palestinians think the Holocaust is used by Jews and Israelis as propaganda to justify the seizure of lands that Palestinians say are theirs and to create sympathy for Israel. Others, he said, think the Holocaust is exaggerated or just one of many massacres that occurred during World War II.
“They said, ‘Why go to Poland? Why not teach our young people about the Nakba?’ ” Dajani said.
The Nakba, or catastrophe, refers to the events of 1948 when the Arabs and Israelis fought a war. The Arabs lost, the state of Israel was born, and hundreds of thousands of Palestinians fled or were expelled from their homes and became a people of a diaspora, living even today as refugees here and across the Middle East.
An online version of an article about the trip published in the major Palestinian newspaper al-Quds was taken down by the publishers, reportedly because of heated invective in the comments section.
One reader said that taking Palestinian students to Auschwitz was not freedom of expression but treason.
Other critics of the trip included newspaper columnists, TV analysts and fellow researchers in the West Bank.
While the Palestinian students were visiting Auschwitz, a parallel group of Jewish Israeli students from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev and Tel Aviv University ventured to Bethlehem to hear Palestinians from the Dheisheh refugee camp tell their story. The responses of both groups of students — Israelis and Palestinians — would then be analyzed.
Teacher to Jewish student: You'll go to 'gas chamber' if you cut in line
The remark was made by a teacher at London’s prestigious North London Collegiate School to a girl who was allegedly trying to jump the queue for lunch. The school and the teacher have since apologized to the incident the girl’s father called ‘very unpleasant, very uncalled for and very unfortunate.’
April 13, 2014
By David Harding
A teacher at a top London girls' school told a Jewish student she would send her to "one of your gas chambers" for jumping a line in the dining hall.
The outburst was made by the teacher at the North London Collegiate School.
Former pupils include Vogue Editor in Chief Anna Wintour and actress Rachel Weisz, and charges around $10,000 a term.
The incident happened as the teacher passed by pupils lining for food.
The teacher saw the pupil apparently trying to jump the line, then rushed up to her and said: "Don't do that or I'll have to send you to the back of the queue or to one of your gas chambers."
The parents of the girl, who have remained anonymous, said the teacher's behavior was "very unpleasant, very uncalled for and very unfortunate," reported Metro.
The teacher has apologized and the school said it had taken appropriate action, but did not specify what that was.
Spanish village called 'kill Jews' mulling name change
Village of Castrillo Matajudios will convene its 60 families to vote on name dating back to Spanish Inquisition.
April 13, 2014
A Spanish village is considering removing the phrase “kill Jews” from its name.
The village of Castrillo Matajudios near Leon in northern Spain will convene its 60 resident families at a town hall meeting next week to discuss and vote on the first formal proposal to change the village’s name, the regional daily Diario de Burgos reported Friday.
Mayor Lorenzo Rodriguez, who submitted the proposal, suggested changing the village’s name to Castrillo Mota de Judios, which means “Castrillo Jews’ Hill.” He said this was the village’s original name, but it was changed during the Spanish Inquisition.
In parts of Spain, and especially in the north, locals use the term “killing Jews” (matar Judios) to describe the traditional drinking of lemonade spiked with alcohol at festivals held in city squares at Easter, or drinking in general.
Leon will hold its “matar Judios” fiesta on Good Friday, April 18, where organizers estimate 40,000 gallons of lemonade will be sold.
The name originates from medieval times, when converted Jews would sometimes be publicly executed in show trials at around Easter, Maria Royo, a spokesperson for the Federation of Jewish Communities of Spain told JTA.
“Regrettably, this type of expression exists in Spain in ceremonies and parties,” she said, but added that “the people saying it are mostly unaware of the history. It is a complicated issue that is ingrained in local culture.”
The federation is in contact on this issue with authorities, but given the popularity of the expression, “it is impossible to forbid this language” in that context, she added.
Last month, Ramon Benavides, the president of a local associations of hoteliers, told the news agency EFE: “When ‘killing Jews,’ it’s best to take it slow and keep track of how much you drink to avoid excesses and its consequences the next day.”
Muslim community centre in east end Montreal vandalized
April 9, 2014
MONTREAL — Muslims who turned up for morning prayers at an Islamic Community Centre on Tuesday morning received a nasty surprise. Vandals threw an axe through a window at the Centre communautaire islamique Assahaba on Bélanger St. in the east end. No one was injured, but the words “F--- Liberals and “we will scalp Muslims” were written on the axe, according to Commander Ian Lafrenière of the Montreal police. Police are investigating the incident as a hate crime, he said.
Jewish delegation thanks Shanghai for WWII refuge
Former refugees gather at city's Jewish museum and recount their childhood in a city that offered a safe haven from the Nazis.
March 28, 2014
This vintage photograph, circa 1940, shows Jewish refugees arriving in Shanghai, then under Japanese occupation.
A delegation of Jewish refugees and their families arrived in Shanghai on Wednesday to show their gratitude to the city that took them in as refugees fleeing the Nazis.
The visitors, headed by Shanghai-born Rabbi Chaim Walkin who organized the trip, gathered at the Shanghai Jewish Refugee Museum. There, they shared their memories at a press conference with the museum's curator.
Between 1933 and June 22, 1941, roughly 20,000-25,000 Jewish refugees escaped Nazi persecution to Shanghai. Because of its extra-territorial status prior to Japanese occupation in 1941, Shanghai was one of the few places in the world that would accept Jewish refugees without requiring hard-to-get immigration visas.
Mickey Abraham from New York City, who was born in Shanghai in 1942, told China's Global Times that "Shanghai's people were very nice" to his family, "and they respected Jewish customs very much."
Chaya Small, another member of the delegation and Rabbi Walkin's sister, recounted her childhood years in the city. “I lived a normal life here. I went to school and shopping. I’m so grateful to the people of Shanghai who provided us a haven to live and continue our lifestyle and our family," she told the Shanghai Daily.
New Dutch Holocaust monument to bear names of 102,000 victims
The memorial, the first of its kind in the Netherlands, will cost about $6.9 million and will be designed by architect Daniel Libeskind.
March 28, 2014
A Holocaust monument will be erected in the Dutch capital next year naming 102,000 victims of the Nazi occupation, giving long overdue recognition to those deported to death camps, campaigners said on Wednesday.
The "Holocaust Names Monument," the first of its kind in the Netherlands, will be designed by Jewish American architect Daniel Libeskind. It is to be completed in 2015, 70 years after the end of World War Two, authorities in Amsterdam, home of Anne Frank's house, said in a statement.
"In percentage terms, The Netherlands had the highest deportation rate in Western Europe, but there is no such monument here to honour their memory," said Jacques Grishaver, chairman of the Dutch Auschwitz Committee.
"Their names had vanished into thin air. Now the family members of the victims will have a place to go and a name on a plaque to touch."
Like similar monuments in other European cities, the Dutch memorial will list the full names of all 102,000 Jews, Roma and Sinti who were deported from the Netherlands to Nazi concentration and death camps, the committee said.
Among those deported from the Netherlands was Anne Frank, a Jewish teenager who hid in an Amsterdam canal house until being deported with her family.
The monument will cost roughly 5 million euros ($6.9 million), which the committee hopes to pay for with donations from private individuals, corporations, foundations and governments.
Russia Plays the Anti-Semitism Card
March 18, 2014
By Abraham Foxman
When the Serbs and Croats were involved in conflict in the early 1990s, prior to the Balkan war spreading to Bosnia, the Jewish community in America was getting calls from Serbian Jews urging our communal defense organizations to support the Serbs because of Croatian treatment of its Jews during the Holocaust.
We responded that it is indeed true that Croatian behavior during the Holocaust was among the worst in Europe, but that did not justify what Milosevic, the Serbian ruler, was doing to stoke conflict. Eventually, when ethnic cleansing in Bosnia became a central theme of the Yugoslav conflict, we spoke out forcefully.
I think of that now as the situation in Ukraine deteriorates. There is no doubt that Ukraine, like Croatia, was one of those places where local militias played a key role in the murder of thousands of Jews during World War II. It is also true that anti-Semitism has by no means disappeared from Ukraine. In recent months there have been a number of serious anti-Semitic incidents and there are at least two parties in Ukraine, Svoboda and Right Sector, that have within them some extreme nationalists and anti-Semites.
Having said that, it is pure demagoguery and an effort to rationalize criminal behavior on the part of Russia to invoke the anti-Semitism ogre into the struggle in Ukraine. In fact, it is fair to say that there was more anti-Semitism manifest in the worldwide Occupy Wall Street movement than we have seen so far in the revolution taking place in Ukraine.
For Russian President Vladimir Putin to play the anti-Semitism card is of a piece with his claim that Russian troops had to invade Crimea to protect ethnic Russians from alleged extremist Ukrainians. With one difference: When he speaks about alleged oppression of Russians in Ukraine, he is rallying his own countrymen primarily. And it is working, as reports indicate a surge in Russian patriotism and support for the president.
Marois won't condemn controversial, anti-semitic comments by PQ candidate
March 16, 2014
Quebec Premier Pauline Marois is refusing to condemn the controversial comments of her candidate in the Montreal riding of Gouin.
Louise Mailloux had recently confirmed in a La Presse interview she still stands by past comments in which she said baptism and circumcision are akin to rape.
But Marois said those are Mailloux's views, not those of the PQ.
"She has long held these positions and has written eloquently and extensively about them," Marois told reporters at her daily news conference during a stop in Pointe-St-Charles, referring to Mailloux's opinions on secularism.
"These are her views. I respect that she has these points of view. She supports our (proposed secularism Charter) and I appreciate her support."
Mailloux is also being taken to task for her views on the so-called "kosher conspiracy." The Center for Israel and Jewish Affairs cites her past comments describing kosher certification as robbery and a scam that inflates the prices of kosher foodstuffs and bilks Quebeckers out of their tax dollars for the benefit of the Jewish community.
"(It's) completely untrue and it's really a form of anti-semitism," said spokesperson Eta Yudin.
Marois tried to distance her and her party from Mailloux's viewpoints.
"We are not, the Parti Quebecois is not an anti-semitic party," Marois said.
"I have very good relations with the leaders of this community and with all the leaders of all the different communities in Quebec."
Marois would not offer an opinion on Mailloux's declarations.
"She has her point of view and the Parti Quebecois has their own orientation," Marois said.
Yudin said Marois is not only party leader but the premier of all Quebeckers and should have come out against the comments.
"It's a little bit concerning that in our day and age there seems to be a place for this kind of propagation of these kinds of tales which only gives them legitimacy in the eyes of those who want to pick up this offensive discourse against the Jewish community," Yudin said.
"We would expect our government and its leadership to do the right thing."
A petition on change.org is calling for Mailloux to bow out of the race in Gouin.
Holocaust Denier Runs for Paris City Council
National Front's Pierre Panot 'Hasn't Changed' Pro-Nazi Views
March 14, 2014
France’s far-right National Front party placed a Holocaust denier on its list of candidates for the municipal elections in Paris.
The candidate, Pierre Panet, wrote in 2012 that he “shares the analysis of Roger Garaudy,” a convicted Holocaust denier. The L’Express daily reported on his candidacy Wednesday.
The same year, he told the AFP news agency: “I haven’t changed. I always credit Robert Faurisson but I refrain from elaborating these theses because it is forbidden by law.”
Faurisson was also convicted of denying the Holocaust. He claimed the gas chambers were an invention. Panet is running for election on the National Front’s ticket for the 12th arrondissement in eastern Paris. Municipal elections are scheduled to be held on March 23 and March 30.
The party leader in the arrondissement, Christian Vauge, told AFP he has instructed Panet to adhere strictly to the party’s platform.
“I told him, let’s forget all that you thought in the past. I asked him to stick to the official line,” he said.
Separately, the center-right UDI party dropped a former candidate from their list for the municipality of Schiltigheim near Strasbourg after regional prosecutors said she would stand trial for inciting racial hatred in connection with anti-Semitic statements they suspect she made online.
The candidate, Hayat Belaredj, is believed to have written on Facebook: “The Jewish danger, what a disgrace” about outgoing mayor Raphael Nisand, who is Jewish, Le Monde reported on Tuesday.
Germany rejects reparation claim from Greek Jews extorted by Nazis
The Jewish community of Thessaloniki said Tuesday it had sued Germany at the European Court of Human Rights for compensation over a forced ransom paid to Nazi occupation forces.
March 8, 2014
By Ruchama Weiss and Rabbi Levi Brackman
Germany on Wednesday rejected a fresh Nazi-era reparation claim by a Greek city’s Jewish community but offered the group cooperation on future projects. “With regard to issues of reparations, there are no new developments and all these questions are answered,” a German Finance Ministry spokesman told a press conference.
The Jewish community of Thessaloniki said Tuesday it had sued Germany at the European Court of Human Rights for compensation over a forced ransom paid to Nazi occupation forces. It said Jewish residents had paid 2.5 million drachmas to a Nazi commander in July 1942 to secure the release of thousands of Jewish men submitted to brutal forced labor.
Despite the payment, raised from donations and property sales, most of the victims were later transported to the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp in Poland where they perished.
A German foreign ministry spokesman said on Wednesday that Berlin was ready to work on unspecified new projects with the city’s Jewish community, independent of the legal bid.
“It’s our express proposal to pursue forward-looking projects with the Jewish community of Thessaloniki,” he told reporters.
The finance ministry spokesman said Germany has always indicated an awareness of its historical responsibility for World War II crimes.
“In the relationship with Greece, questions about the future play the fundamental role,” he said.
Greece has said in recent years it reserves the right to claim more wartime reparations, arguing it was forced to accept unfavorable terms during negotiations with Germany in the 1950s.
Open letter of Ukrainian Jews to Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin
And we certainly know that our very few nationalists are well-controlled by civil society and the new Ukrainian government – which is more than can be said for the Russian neo-Nazis, who are encouraged by your security services.
March 5, 2014
To the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
We are Jewish citizens of Ukraine: businessmen, managers, public figures, scientists and scholars, artists and musicians. We are addressing you on behalf of the multi-national people of Ukraine, Ukraine’s national minorities, and on behalf of the Jewish community.
You have stated that Russia wants to protect the rights of the Russian-speaking citizens of the Crimea and all of Ukraine and that these rights have been trampled by the current Ukrainian government. Historically, Ukrainian Jews are also mostly Russian-speaking. Thus, our opinion on what is happening carries no less weight than the opinion of those who advise and inform you.
We are convinced that you are not easily fooled. This means that you must be consciously picking and choosing lies and slander from the entire body of information on Ukraine. And you know very well that Victor Yanukovich’s statement used to describe the situation after the latest treaty had been signed – “…Kyiv is full of armed people who have begun to ransack buildings, places of worship, and churches. Innocent people are suffering. People are being robbed and killed in the streets…” – is simply a lie, from the first word to the very last.
The Russian-speaking citizens of Ukraine are not being humiliated or discriminated against, their civil rights have not been infringed upon. Meanderings about “forced Ukrainization” and “bans on the Russian language” that have been so common in Russian media are on the heads of those who invented them. Your certainty about the growth of anti-Semitism in Ukraine, which you expressed at your press-conference, also does not correspond to the actual facts. Perhaps you got Ukraine confused with Russia, where Jewish organizations have noticed growth in anti-Semitic tendencies last year.
Right now, after Ukraine has survived a difficult political crisis, many of us have wound up on different sides of the barricades. The Jews of Ukraine, as all ethnic groups, are not absolutely unified in their opinion towards what is happening in the country. But we live in a democratic country and can afford a difference of opinion.
They have tried to scare us (and are continuing their attempts) with “Bandera followers” and “Fascists” attempting to wrest away the helm of Ukrainian society, with imminent Jewish pogroms. Yes, we are well aware that the political opposition and the forces of social protests who have secured changes for the better are made up of different groups. They include nationalistic groups, but even the most marginal do not dare show anti-Semitism or other xenophobic behavior. And we certainly know that our very few nationalists are well-controlled by civil society and the new Ukrainian government – which is more than can be said for the Russian neo-Nazis, who are encouraged by your security services.
We have a great mutual understanding with the new government, and a partnership is in the works. There are quite a few national minority representatives in the Cabinet of Ministers: the Minister of Internal Affairs is Armenian, the Vice Prime Minister is a Jew, two ministers are Russian. The newly-appointed governors of Ukraine’s region are also not exclusively Ukrainian.
German newspaper is accused of anti-Semitic propaganda over cartoon depicting Mark Zuckerberg as big-nosed octopus
Süddeutsche Zeitung accused of anti-Semitism for another image last year
February 25, 2014
by Kate Lyons
The German newspaper, Süddeutsche Zeitung, has been accused of anti-Semitism after it published a cartoon depicting Mark Zuckerberg as an octopus controlling the world.
The cartoon was published in the newspaper last Friday after the announcement that Facebook had purchased Whatsapp. Two versions were published, one with the caption ‘Krake Zuckerberg’, the other ‘Krake Facebook’ – Facebook Octopus and Zuckerberg Octopus.
In the drawing, the 29-year-old Facebook founder is portrayed with a hooked nose, fleshy lips and curly hair, features ascribed to Jewish people in Nazi cartoons.
The cartoon was ‘starkly reminiscent’ of anti-Semitic Nazi era cartoons, Efraim Zuroff from the Simon Wiesenthal Centre told the Jerusalem Post.
If anyone has any doubts about the anti-Semitic dimension of the cartoon, we can point to Mark Zuckerberg’s very prominent nose, which is not the case in real life,’ said Mr Zuroff who added that he found the cartoon, 'Absolutely disgusting!'
The cartoon depicts Mr Zuckerberg, who was raised Jewish but now describes himself as an atheist, as an octopus grasping at computers around him. In one of his tentacles he holds the logo of Whatsapp, the instant messaging service his company recently purchased for $19billion.
‘The nefarious Jew/octopus was a caricature deployed by Nazis. That was used pretty much as a staple by the Nazis in terms of their hateful campaign against the Jews in the 1930s. [An] exaggerated Jewish nose removes any question if this was unconscious anti-Semitism,’ Rabbi Abraham Cooper, Associate Dean of the Simon Wiesenthal Centre told Algemeiner.
THE LAST OF THE MONUMENTS MEN
February 22,, 2014
By Emily Greenhouse
The other day, Harry Ettlinger took a hired car from his home in Rockaway Township, New Jersey, to a screening at the Center for Jewish History, in Greenwich Village. He was running late, but the movie—“The Monuments Men,” directed by George Clooney, starring Matt Damon, Cate Blanchett, Bill Murray, and Lord Grantham, from “Downton Abbey”—probably wouldn’t have started without him.
Ettlinger is, in his words, the only “healthy, living monument man” left. In his eighty-eight years, he’s had good timing. In 1938, he said, he “was the last bar-mitzvah boy in Karlsruhe, Germany, before the synagogue was burned down” during Kristallnacht; his rabbi granted the family permission to flee that day, even though it was the Sabbath. (His parents had been lucky enough to secure visas at the American consulate in Stuttgart on the final day that applications were accepted.) The Ettlingers sailed to America and ended up on Manhattan’s uppermost street, 218th, at Seaman Avenue.
Ettlinger joined the Army after he graduated from high school, in Newark, and became an American citizen in boot camp. On his nineteenth birthday, while he was in a truck heading east from France to southern Belgium, a sergeant came running and ordered him off the convoy. Ettlinger had been selected to be a translator at the trials at Nuremberg, but he hit Munich first and, bored by the waiting that characterizes war—“eating, sleeping, and goofing off,” as he puts it—volunteered his services to an American who needed help decoding German documents. That was James Rorimer, who went on to become a curator at the Metropolitan Museum. Hitler had been amassing art stolen from Jews for an eventual Führermuseum, an Albert Speer-designed complex that would include an opera house, a parade ground, and a Hitler hotel. Rorimer became one of the three hundred and forty-five people, from thirteen countries, who tracked down and returned more than five million looted art objects. Ettlinger was happy to join him.
Over a rushed supper, Ettlinger, who is bald and speaks with a heavy German accent, sat with Dorothy Kahan, his companion of ten years, and talked about his upcoming trip to Europe. He would meet Clooney at a special screening of “The Monuments Men” in Berlin. And Baden-Wuerttemberg, his home state, was bestowing upon him the rare Staufer Medal in Gold, its highest order of merit for service to the state. Speaking about his childhood to Rachel Lithgow, the director of the American Jewish Historical Society, he exclaimed, “I used to swim in the Rhine River!”
Kahan said, “Harry’s family goes back to the fifteen-hundreds in Germany.”
“Fourteen!” he corrected. “1450.”
The 2014 European Elections: A Jewish Manifesto
February 21, 2014
The 2014 European Elections A Jewish Manifesto
The 2014 European Parliament Election will take place on 22 May 2014 in the United Kingdom. These elections matter. The EU makes up to 50% of laws enacted in the UK and controls an annual budget of around €150 billion (or £125 billion).
This manifesto is aimed at informing existing and prospective Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) about Jewish interests and concerns. The Board of Deputies hopes that the manifesto will empower our elected representatives to understand and champion these causes.
Some of these are live topics, whereas others are matters that could potentially arise. In each
section, the manifesto outlines in bold the commitments that the Board of Deputies would like
to see from MEPs, summarised below.
Executive Summary: Key Jewish Aspirations in Europe
We ask our MEPs and prospective MEPs to commit to the following:
1. Religious Freedom
MEPs should defend religious freedom in the European Union and around the World.
MEPs should promote a culture of respect for diversity, including reasonable
accommodation of individuals’ rights to wear religious symbols and observe religious festivals and the Jewish Sabbath.
MEPs should defend the right of Jews to practice Shechita (religious slaughter of animals
MEPs should not stigmatise religious or other minorities through labelling. If it is
genuinely consumer choice that is desired, all methods of slaughter should be labelled.
MEPs should defend the right of Jews to practice circumcision.
MEPs should advance the cause of human rights across the World.
MEPs should support the EU and Member States in recognising the diversity of different
denominations within Judaism, drawing on expert advice where necessary.
2. Extremism, Racism & Antisemitism in Europe
MEPs should be alert to extremism, racism and antisemitism in Europe.
MEPs should support coordination between member states to prevent and prosecute
hate crimes and acts of terrorism.
o MEPs should act on the concerning findings from the European Union Agency for
Fundamental Rights (FRA) report, including unreservedly condemning antisemitism in all
its forms and challenging member states who do not address and monitor antisemitism.
MEPs should look to secure adequate assistance and funding to European institutions
such as the EU’s FRA, ensuring that it is able to conduct its survey of Jewish experiences
and perceptions of a ntisemitism in the EU every five years as planned.
MEPs should be particularly wary of the risk of increased antisemitism at times of
heightened conflict in the Middle East.
MEPs should be alive to hate as expressed on new social media.
MEPs should help to ensure that assistance is provided to third-party reporting bodies
and security agencies that monitor and protect vulnerable groups, including the Jewish
MEPs should support initiatives which promote dialogue and understanding between
different groups in society, to prevent tensions and promote cooperation.
3. Post-Holocaust Issues
MEPs should lend their support to Holocaust education, remembrance and research.
MEPs and prospective MEPs should take the time to show solidarity with all the victims
of Nazi persecution, including Jews, Roma, homosexuals, disabled people and political
opponents of Nazism.
MEPs should use the moral authority of their position to call for a just and speedy
conclusion to the issue of restitution across Europe and to press the institutions of the
European Union to do the same.
MEPs should challenge their European colleagues on those narratives that seek to
minimise or downplay the Holocaust.
MEPs should support initiatives to find unmarked graves, including helping to unlock EUfunding
and working with MEP colleagues from other countries to overcome some of
the bureaucratic and political obstacles to this work.
4. EU-Israel Relations
MEPs should promote peace, security, prosperity and equality for Israel and its
MEPs should mobilise EU structures to promote Middle East peace at both the
leadership level and at the grassroots.
MEPs should oppose boycotts of Israel, which are divisive and promote a negative
incentive structure that militates against peace.
MEPs should be aware of the uniquely complicated threats to Israel’s security, and
should encourage EU institutions to take account of these threats.
MEPs should raise concerns about Iran’s nuclear programme, its financing of
international terror and its human rights record with the the High Representative of the
Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
MEPs should act to proscribe Hezbullah in its entirety, damaging its abilities to launch
attacks in Europe, the Middle East and around the World.
MEPs should refuse to meet with Hamas politicians, officials or supporters, until the
movement recognises Israel; agrees to abide by previous agreements; and desists from
MEPs should support and nurture the growing trade between Israel and the European
MEPs should be constructive partners in the pursuit of greater integration and equality
in Israel by offering financial and political support to initiatives aimed at Arab-Jewish
coexistence, and helping to support projects that empower and advance the position of
Arab citizens within Israeli society.
MEPs should call on the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and
Security Policy to ensure that international institutions such as the UNHRC act with
integrity and do not disproportionately focus on Israel.
UN panel accuses North Korea of human rights abuses resembling Nazis
February 17, 2014
North Korea's leadership is committing systematic and appalling human rights abuses against its own citizens on a scale unparalleled in the modern world, crimes against humanity with strong resemblances to those committed by the Nazis, a United Nations inquiry has concluded.
The UN's commission on human rights in North Korea, which gathered evidence for almost a year, including often harrowing testimony at public hearings worldwide, said there was compelling evidence of torture, execution and arbitrary imprisonment, deliberate starvation and an almost complete lack of free thought and belief.
The chair of the three-strong panel set up by the UN commissioner on human rights has personally written to North Korea's leader, Kim Jong-un, to warn that he could face trial at the international criminal court (ICC) for his personal culpability as head of state and leader of the military.
"The commission wishes to draw your attention that it will therefore recommend that the United Nations refer the situation in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea [the formal name for North Korea] to the international criminal court to render accountable all those, including possibly yourself, who may be responsible for the crimes against humanity," Michael Kirby, an Australian retired judge, wrote to Kim.
At a press conference to launch the report, Kirby said there were "many parallels" between the evidence he had heard and crimes committed by the Nazis and their allies in the second world war. He noted the evidence of one prison camp inmate who said his duties involved burning the bodies of those who had starved to death and using the remains as fertilizer.
Denmark to ban halal and kosher slaughter methods
February 14, 2014
Denmark’s Agriculture and Food Ministry has announced that as of Monday the Jewish and Muslim traditional method of animal slaughter will be banned in the country, following similar measures already in place in Poland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland.
A new law requires that all animals are stunned before being slaughtered, which is contrary to Islamic and Jewish teachings. This means that observant Muslims and Jews living in Denmark will no longer be able to purchase their meat from local butchers, and will have to buy imported halal and kosher meat instead.
The ministry argues that halal and kosher slaughter methods are unethical and that religious rights do not come before animal rights. However, Muslims and Jews insist that their slaughter methods cause minimal suffering to the animals.
European Commissioner for Health, Tonio Borg, condemned the ban, saying that it “contradicts European law.”
Agriculture and Food Minister Karen Hækkerup, acknowledged that Muslims and Jews were upset by the new measures, but vowed that the ministry would not change its policy.
Jewish Passengers on Belgian Train Told to Get off at Auschwitz
February 13, 2014
By Stephanie Butnick
Jews on a recent train in Belgium were treated to a twisted announcement on the train’s speaker system: that they should get off at Auschwitz and take a shower. JTA reported the bizarre incident, which is believed to have been the work of adolescents who stole the keys that operate the loudspeaker.
The incident of Jan. 31 prompted the Belgian rail company SNCB to file a complaint with police over incitement to hatred, the RTL broadcaster reported Tuesday.
According to RTL, the suspects gained access to the speaker system during rush hour, at 5 p.m., while traveling from Namur to Brussels. One of the passengers said in French, “Ladies and gentlemen, we are approaching Auschwitz. All Jews are requested to disembark and take a short shower.”
The most disturbing part of the story is that this has happened before, in 2012, on the same train line. “Welcome to this train heading to Auschwitz,” the loudspeaker hijackers were reported to have said. “All Jews are requested to disembark at Buchenwald.” Though why a hypothetical train to a concentration camp in Poland would need to deposit passengers in Germany is beyond me. Perhaps the train company could invest in a better security system, or at least a few geography lessons.
Pope Francis: Breaking New Ground in Jewish-Catholic Relations
The Holy Father’s friendships and strong tradition of dialogue with Jewish leaders are already having an impact, building on the foundation provided by previous popes.
February 3, 2014
NEW YORK — The bonds between Jews and Catholics have never been stronger in the Church’s 2,000-year history, but some Jewish leaders say that, with Pope Francis, the best is about to get even better.
Blessed Pope John XXIII reset Catholic-Jewish relations in the 1960s, seeking to reconcile the grievances of the past, in which Catholics had treated Jews less like beloved brothers and more like strangers — or worse, as enemies. The Church approved that outreach in 1965 at the Second Vatican Council with the document Nostra Aetate, and Popes Paul VI, Blessed John Paul II and Benedict XVI all continued efforts to deepen those relations.
But Pope Francis’ pontificate represents a new chapter of deeper understanding and friendship between Jews and Catholics.
“Pope Francis has very close personal friends from his days as cardinal who are rabbis, who are leaders in the Jewish community,” said Menachem Rosensaft, general counsel for the World Jewish Congress (WSJ). “The dialogue and the relationship have been unprecedented in terms of warmth and closeness.”
Rosensaft said the Pope’s relationship with Jews in Buenos Aires reveals “a totally new model that we’ve never seen before.”
“The relationship is not a formal or intellectual one. But in addition to being intellectual, or symbolic, it is also heartfelt and intuitive,” he said. “That makes a tremendous difference.”
Few things highlight Pope Francis’ relationship with the Jews more than his deep, abiding friendship with Rabbi Abraham Skorka, rector of the Latin American Rabbinical Seminary in Buenos Aires. The two men started a friendship in the late 1990s with a joke over their favorite soccer teams, and they published a book in 2010 called On Heaven and Earth, revealing their interreligious dialogue on 29 different topics.
“He does what he says, and he speaks what’s on his mind and what he feels in a very direct and clear way,” Rabbi Skorka told the Register in an exclusive interview. “He’s a respectful person who respects me, really, in everything he says. He’s a lovely person, very simple and highly spiritual.”
The Pope and Rabbi Skorka made history by sharing meals and praying together during Sukkot and Sabbath at the Vatican — making Pope Francis perhaps the first bishop of Rome to do so, since St. Peter himself.
Rabbi Skorka has been in the United States sharing his experiences with Pope Francis at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York on Oct. 29 and at Sacred Heart University in Connecticut, where he received an honorary degree.
The book co-written by Pope Francis and Rabbi Skorka reveals how they feel dialogue should be conducted: by becoming acquainted with the person, viewing him as having something good to say, but not compromising one’s different identity while finding common ground together.
Rabbi Skorka said he and Pope Francis have discussed that the next step in their dialogue “will be a theological one”: what a Catholic means to a Jew and what a Jew means to a Catholic.
Far-right Italian suspected of sending pigs' heads to synagogue
February 1, 2014
Italian police have identified a far-right radical they suspect of sending pigs heads last week to Rome's Grand Synagogue, Israeli embassy and a museum with a Holocaust exhibition, authorities said on Friday.
Police said the 29-year-old Roman, whom they did not name, had links to far-right political groups and planned to found a new one. Anti-terrorism police were investigating him and charges were being prepared, they said.
The man has not been taken into custody for sending the parcels in the run-up to International Holocaust Remembrance Day on January 27, they added.
Officials said that anti-Semitic graffiti were also scrawled on the walls of a municipal building in the city last Friday.
Nicola Zingaretti, president of Lazio region including Rome, called the sending of pigs' heads "a vile and cowardly act that offends the Jewish community and all Romans on the eve of the memorial day."
Like other European countries, Italy, whose fascist government was an ally of Nazi Germany during World War Two, has seen sporadic acts of anti-Semitism in recent years although mainstream political leaders have always firmly condemned them.
'Jews, Out of France!'
Chilling video shows hundreds of anti-Semites on the march in Paris, illustrating the frightening rise of anti-Semitism in France.
January 30, 2014
By Ari Soffer
A video, taken on the eve of International Holocaust Remembrance Day, shows masses of French protesters marching down a Paris thoroughfare chanting openly anti-Semitic slogans and calling on Jews to get out of France.
Chants include "Jews, France is not yours!" "Jews out of France" and "The story of the gas chambers is bull***!" At one point, in a show of raw, seething hatred, the crowd simply spits out the word "Jew, Jew, Jew!"
Many of the marchers can be seen giving the "quenelle" inverted Nazi salute popularized by anti-Semitic comedian Dieudonne. The gesture is seen as a way for anti-Semites to give a Nazi salute without incurring the wrath of authorities - although one demonstrator can be seen giving a full-on Nazi salute as well.
t was part of a "Day of Anger" called by anti-government activists in protest of a variety of "anti-establishment" causes. French police estimated that around 17,000 people had attended the march, and said that 250 had been arrested. Police told AFP news agency that 19 police officers were injured in clashes with demonstrators, one seriously.
Despite claims by Dieudonne and some of his supporters that it is simply an innocent "up yours" or "anti-establishment" gesture, it has been adopted by a vast range of anti-Semites, from the far-right to Muslim extremists, many of whom post online pictures of themselves making the salute in front of sensitive sites such as Holocaust memorials, synagogues, and even the school in Toulouse at which an Islamist gunman murdered a rabbi and three Jewish children.
Dieudonne himself has a long history of anti-Semitic comments and shows, including a recent video in which he implies the Jewish victims of the Holocaust may themselves be to blame for their own genocide.
Apart from the quenelle gestures, the marchers can clearly be heard singing a song mocking the Holocaust composed by Dieudonne, entitled "Shoananas". The song is yet another masterful attempt by Dieudonne to trivialize and legitimize anti-Semitism; it is a play on the Hebrew word for the Holocaust (Shoah) and the French word for pineapple (ananas).
For the International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust, Monday, 27 January 2014 Statement by the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navi Pillay
January 25, 2014
“Today, we honour the memory of the millions of people - men, women and children - brutally murdered seven decades ago for the simple fact of being Jewish, Roma, Slav or homosexual, because they had disabilities, or were Jehovah’s witnesses or political opponents.
I visited Auschwitz a few months ago, and I have a simple message for all those who deny that the Holocaust happened, or who engage in anti-Semitism or other forms of religious, racial or ethnic intolerance or discrimination: visit this historic and terrible place. It is a truly humbling and harrowing experience to feel the chill of evil and immense tragedy that permeates its walls and grounds. It is important to feel -- not just to know in an abstract way -- where such behaviour can lead.
Each year, on 27 January, we take time to remember the victims of the Holocaust and to reflect on how it came about, and how the world at large failed so dismally to prevent it. The Holocaust stands as a searing reminder of the perils of discrimination and intolerance, and of just how powerful and deadly the incitement to racial hatred can be. It also should make us more aware of the importance of reacting quickly and firmly to manifestations of discrimination, hostility or violence against individuals and entire communities, wherever they occur.
In the decades since the end of World War II, and the revelation of the full horror of the Holocaust, the flames of hatred and persecution have risen again to consume other countries, people and societies – from the killing fields of Cambodia, to the forests of Srebrenica and the hills of Rwanda.
Even today, in many places around the world, people are persecuted or discriminated against because of their race, religion, origin, sexual orientation or political opinions, and in countries such as Syria, the Central African Republic and South Sudan, people are still being maimed and slaughtered because of the group to which they belong.
We need to stop turning a blind eye to the warning signs of serious human rights violations whenever and wherever they appear. That much, at least, we can do to honour all those millions murdered en masse by their fellow human beings, who attempted to justify war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide with hate-inspired political philosophies and propaganda. We must also be aware that the seeds of such hatred are often sown in times of peace as well in times of war.”
Hungary at UN apologizes for role in the Holocaust
"Institutions in the then-Hungarian state were responsible for the Holocaust," says Ambassador Casba Körösi.
January 25, 2014
By MAYA SHWAYDER, SAM SOKOL
The Hungarian ambassador to the UN said in New York on Thursday his nation took responsibility for its role in the Holocaust, days after the country’s Jewish community accused the government of engaging in Holocaust revisionism.
He spoke at a event commemorating the 70th anniversary of the deportation of Hungarian Jews, sponsored by the UN Department of Public Information for NGOs.
Ambassador Casba Körösi, who became unusually emotional for a diplomat during his remarks, conveyed the sincere apologies of the Hungarian state for the crimes committed, and admitted the state’s guilt in both its complicity in standing by and its assistance to the criminals.
“Institutions in the then-Hungarian state were responsible for the Holocaust,” Körösi said. “This apology must be made part of the national memory and identity of the Hungarian state.”
The Federation of Hungarian Jewish Communities (Mazsihisz) has been involved in a high-profile dispute with President Viktor Orbán’s administration over a series of incidents which it believes show a tendency towards downplaying their countrymen’s role in the genocide of Hungarian Jewry.
Last week the Mazsihisz threatened to boycott all events associated with their government’s yearlong commemoration of the Holocaust. Hungary has declared 2014 to be the Hungarian Holocaust Memorial Year, with special attention paid and new memorials erected to the child victims.
The ultimatum, delivered via the website of the Mazsihisz on Sunday, comes in response to a statement by Sándor Szakály, director of the state-sponsored Veritas Historical Research Institute, allegedly minimizing the Holocaust.
Szakály reportedly termed the deportation and massacre of tens of thousands of Jews in Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine, during World War II, “police action against aliens.”
Mazsihisz and other Jewish organizations have demanded that Szakály apologize and step down.
The Jewish community was further incensed by Orbán’s decision to push ahead with the erection of a statue depicting a Germanic eagle descending on the Angel Gabriel, a Hungarian symbol, in Budapest.
Heinrich Himmler's missing letters surface
"Die Welt" exclusive: 69 years after Heinrich Himmler's suicide his private letters and photographs have surfaced in Israel. They provide insight into the life of one of the main orchestrators of the Holocaust.
January 25, 2014
Heinrich Himmler was one of the most powerful Nazi leaders in Adolf Hitler's inner circle. He was the ruthless organizer of the Holocaust, head of the Waffen-SS, Gestapo and the police - responsible for the concentration camps and the death of millions of people. Himmler's private documents have been lost for decades. Only now hundreds of private letters, notes and photos from the private collection of the man who played the decisive role in the mass extermination of Jews have surfaced.
"Die Welt" obtained copies of the previously unpublished documents that have been kept in the private home of an Israeli Jew for a very long time. Eventually they came into the possession of a private archive and are now stored in a bank vault in Tel Aviv. In addition to the letters Himmler wrote to his wife Margarethe (Marga) from 1927 to five weeks before his suicide in 1945, there are many previously unknown photographs, and the estate of Himmler's foster son and other papers such as recipe books.
According to the German Federal Archive's (Bundesarchiv) expert assessment, there is verifiable proof that the documents are authentic. President Michael Hollmann told "Die Welt": "We are sure about these documents." In the expert opinion of the world's most important institution dealing with the written legacy of the "Third Reich", it says: "There is no reason to doubt the authenticity of the documents in Tel Aviv. "
There is conclusive evidence that traces the material to its origin. The letters are often signed "Dein Heini" ("Your Heini") or "Euer Pappi" ("Your Daddy") and the handwriting matches other known documents of Himmler perfectly. His letters also complement exactly his wife's letters, which are kept in the German Federal Archive for many years.
The Berlin historian and Nazi expert Michael Wildt describes the find as "a dense body of private documents. There is nothing like it for any other member of the Nazi leadership." Adolf Hitler and his official deputy Hermann Göring left virtually no personal records. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, the fourth leading Nazi, left a huge inventory of handwritten diaries and daily dictations. But they are almost, without exception, material for future propaganda and not really private documents.
The hundreds of pages of private correspondence between Heinrich Himmler and Marga only seem mundane at first glance. Especially in the first years of their relationship, when Himmler was not yet at the top level of the Nazi hierarchy, they wrote many seemingly ordinary love letters. But time and again there were signs of Himmler's immeasurable anti-Semitism and his obsessiveness in these early letters of the years 1927/28. The documents do not change the overall picture of the Nazi reign of terror, but they certainly add countless previously unknown details and help getting a better idea of what type of person the SS leader was, his everyday life and his surroundings.
Auschwitz museum adds Arabic, Persian to online program
'When it comes to the number of visitors, the entire area of the Arab states and Iran almost do not exist in our statistics,' museum’s director says.
January 23, 2014
The Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum added several languages, including Arabic and Persian, to its online educational programs about the camp’s history.
Along with Arabic and Persian, the new lessons are now available in Spanish and Portuguese. The programs had been available only in English and Polish.
“When it comes to the number of visitors, the entire area of the Arab states and Iran almost do not exist in our statistics,” said the museum’s director, Andrzej Kacorzyk.
“At the same time, we realize that it is often there where the history of the Holocaust is shown in a very distorted way, or even it is doubted and used politically.”
The program focuses on the history of Auschwitz and the mass extermination of Jews there. It features video footage of interviews with survivors, graphics and photos.
Poland Poll Reveals Stubborn Anti-Semitism Amid Jewish Revival Hopes
63% See Jewish Conspiracies and Back Old Canards
January 19, 2014
By Don Snyder
A majority of respondents in a recent Polish national survey believe that there’s a Jewish conspiracy to control international banking and the media. And 90% of these Poles say they’ve never met a Jew.
The national study, conducted by the Center for Research on Prejudice at Warsaw University, found that in Poland, the belief in a Jewish conspiracy remains high – 63% in 2013 – and relatively unchanged from 2009 when 65% of respondents held this belief.
The study also found an 8 percent increase in more traditional forms of anti-Semitism, including blaming Jews for the murder of Jesus Christ and the belief that Christian blood is used in Jewish rituals. Some 23% were found to hold such traditional, religious-based beliefs about Jews.
The study’s findings were presented to the Polish Sejm, or parliament, on January 9 by Michal Bilewicz, director of the Center for Research on Prejudice. Bilewicz, an assistant professor on the faculty of psychology at the University of Warsaw, is co-author of the report.
In an email, Bilewicz said that most members of the Polish parliament praised the study and many suggested education measures to fight prejudice. The one skeptical voice, he said, was that of Dorota Arciszewska-Mielewczyk, a center-right Law and Justice Party member, who “suggested that Polish Jews are represented by the Knesset rather than the Polish parliament.”
In January 13 phone interview, Arciszewska-Mielewczyk claimed her remarks were taken out of context. Speaking through an interpreter, she said she had expressed her hope that representatives from the Knesset would come to Poland and join the campaign to stop calling the Nazi camps in Poland “Polish concentration camps” — a common complaint among Poles, especially on the right, who take umbrage when camps set up and operated during World War II by the German regime in occupied Poland are labeled as Polish.
According to Arciszewska-Mielewczyk, a Jewish group that was present when she spoke had a “negative and allergic reaction” to her remarks. They also claimed “they had nothing to do with the Knesset,” she said, adding that she then asked for clarification about the Knesset’s status as a body that represents the Jewish nation worldwide.
Pope Francis hosts Argentine Jewish leaders at Vatican
At kosher lunch, Buenos Aires-born pontiff and Jewish leaders focused on strengthening interfaith dialogue.
January 17, 2014
Pope Francis on Thursday hosted a delegation of 15 Jewish leaders from his native Argentina for an informal kosher lunch at the Vatican’s Santa Marta guesthouse.
The conversation with the pontiff, who was born Jorge Mario Bergoglio in Buenos Aires, focused on strengthening interfaith dialogue, according to Claudio Epelman, executive director of the Latin American Jewish Congress.
Epelman is also the World Jewish Congress official in charge of dialogue with the Catholic Church.
It was an “extraordinary gesture by Pope Francis to take more than two hours out of his busy schedule for a conversation with Jewish leaders from his native Argentina,” said Epelman, who organized the lunch with Argentine Rabbi Abraham Skorka.
Pope Francis expressed hope that “this meeting will help nurture the seeds we have planted together” and said he was looking forward “with great expectations” to his visit to Israel in May.
At the end of the lunch, the group intoned Psalm 133 in Hebrew, which says, “How good and pleasant it is when God’s people live together in unity!”
Argentina's Jewish community is the largest in Latin America.
Greek school to present diplomas to Holocaust survivors
Documents of 157 Jewish students who fled Thessaloniki or were deported to Nazi death camp were found by Greek teacher.
January 7, 2014
A teacher at a school in Greece will present recently discovered graduation certificates to 157 Jewish students who fled Thessaloniki or were deported to Nazi death camps, or to their descendants.
Antonio Crescenzi, a teacher at the Italian School in Thessaloniki, found a trove of old documents by accident about a decade ago. After sorting through them he realized their significance, he told the Israeli Maariv daily.
Crescenzi said he has recently managed to track some of the students and their descendants, and plans to finally present them with their certificates in a special ceremony later this year.
Thessaloniki, also known as Salonika, was a major center for Sephardic Jewry in the Balkans with a prewar Jewish population of some 55,000. The Nazis deported nearly 50,000 Jews to Nazi death camps; only some 2,000 survived.
The newly found documents relate to students born between 1912 and 1928 who studied at the school, one of two Italian schools that operated in the port city before the war.
The Warsaw Ghetto Revolt is no myth
Historians should have corrected the exaggerated narrative that developed in Israel about the Jewish uprising in the Warsaw ghetto in April 1943, but the fact remains that there was a revolt, and it was heroic.
January 1, 2014
By Moshe Arens
The article by Eli Gat, “The Warsaw Ghetto myth,” is an important commentary on the Warsaw Ghetto Revolt and the Jewish tragedy during World War II, but its conclusion is wrong: The Warsaw ghetto uprising is no myth. It is a compelling tale of Jewish heroism against insuperable odds, the first major uprising against German occupation during World War II, and has rightfully taken its place in the history of World War II.
The narrative of the uprising, as defined by Zivia Lubetkin, a ghetto fighter, at her passionate speech in Kibbutz Yagur in 1946, and repeated by her husband, Yitzhak “Antek” Zuckerman, at Kibbutz Na’an in 1947 – and reiterated by both at the Adolf Eichmann trial in 1961, and accepted in Israel as the defining narrative of this important event – strays quite far from what really happened in the Warsaw ghetto in April 1943. It is this narrative that is a myth.
Gat is correct in stating that, of the 50,000 Jews in the Warsaw ghetto who had succeeded in evading the deportations to Treblinka in the summer of 1942, only a few hundred participated in the fighting that broke out in the ghetto on April 19, 1943.
An important comment by Gat that nonetheless misses the mark is his claim that the uprising “interfered with the survival strategy of the masses of Jews in the ghetto.” The fact is that what Gat calls “survival strategy” was simply a desire of Jews who were witnessing the murderous actions of the Germans to try and save themselves and their families as long as that seemed possible. Sauve qui peut.
The recognized Jewish leadership of all the political and religious parties had fled Poland as the German army approached Warsaw in the first week of the ground invasion, leaving Polish Jewry leaderless.
The fact is that, unlike Charles de Gaulle, who instructed the French resistance in occupied France from his headquarters in London, and the Polish government-in-exile in London, which commanded the Polish underground from London, the Zionist leadership in Jerusalem did not choose to assume the role of leadership and provide guidance to Jews who were under German occupation. The Jewish Agency had an office in Geneva throughout the war and was in communication with Jews in occupied Poland, but it did not issue guidance of a general nature, a call to resistance, or a call for unity of the different political groups in the face of the German onslaught. Each family was left to its own devices. That’s what Gat calls a “survival strategy of the masses”. Gat’s description of the uprising, including the part played by ZZW, will probably be rejected immediately by those Israeli historians who dismiss out of hand any writings about the Warsaw Ghetto Revolt by those not considered “professional” historians. However, these “professional” historians fail to explain why, with all the relevant evidence before them for many years – the daily communiqués of SS General Jürgen Stroop; his final report; the report he gave to the U.S. military in Wiesbaden on May 1, 1946; the transcript of his conversations with survivors of the Warsaw ghetto while awaiting trial in Warsaw for war crimes committed during the destruction of the ghetto; and his testimony at the trial prior to his execution – they did not correct the partial narrative of the Warsaw Ghetto Revolt as it had been presented by Lubetkin and Zuckerman on their arrival in Palestine after the war.